Home

Poliovirus

Sjukdomsinformation om polio — Folkhälsomyndighete

Poliovirus har tre serotyper: poliovirus 1, 2 och 3 eller PV1, PV2 och PV3. Utöver vilda poliovirus och virus som används i vacciner förekommer det poliovirus som härstammar från vaccin. Vilda poliovirus. Naturligt eller vilt poliovirus (WPV, wild poliovirus) är ett poliovirus som cirkulerar naturligt bland människor Poliomyelitis, ook wel polio genoemd, is een ernstige besmettelijke ziekte die veroorzaakt wordt door het poliovirus. Het virus wordt van mens op mens overgedragen. De infectie kan verlammingen geven, kan leiden tot blijvende restverschijnselen en soms tot overlijden. Vaccinatie met IPVgeinactiveerd polio vaccin wordt in Nederland aangeboden via het Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Not: Exempelmeningarna kommer i huvudsak från svenska dagstidningar, tidskrifter och romaner. En leverans av poliovirus som kan vara mycket smittsamt saknas efter en bilstöld i Sydafrika.; Detta ledde till en cirkulation av bl a poliovirus i samhället.; Eftersom jag var ansvarig för utredningsarbetet beträffande kinetiken vid poliovirus inaktivering kom även jag att dras in i striden

Poliovirus can be transmitted through direct contact with someone infected with the virus or, less commonly, through contaminated food and water. People carrying the poliovirus can spread the virus for weeks in their feces. People who have the virus but don't have symptoms can pass the virus to others. Risk factor Poliovirus is very contagious, and a person can transmit (spread) it even if they aren't sick. The virus goes from person to person in two ways. People with poliovirus in their bodies shed the virus through their feces (poop) Poliovirus. Sairauden aiheuttaa ruoansulatusjärjestelmän kautta kehoon tunkeutunut poliovirus.Sairaus saattaa levitä verenkiertoon ja keskushermostoon aiheuttaen lihasheikkoutta ja vakavimmassa tapauksessa halvauksen. Poliovirus (PV) on pikornaviruksiin kuuluva hyvin pienikokoinen ja erittäin virulentti RNA-virus, joka on sukua hepatiitti A:lle. . Viruksesta on olemassa 12 alatyyppiä.

Poliovirus - Wikipedi

Poliovirus (PV) is an enterovirus in the picornavirus family and causes poliomyelitis.1 Humans are the only natural host for the virus, but a number of NHP species are also susceptible. All three serotypes of PV cause paralytic disease, but it is relatively rare with only 1-2% of infected individuals ultimately developing paralysis Poliovirus, PV, er en virus, der forårsager polio, poliomyelitis.Poliovirus inficerer og forårsager sygdom kun hos mennesker og koloniserer svælget og mave-tarmkanalen, spreder sig til centralnervesystemet og medfører lammelser.Med et globalt vaccinationsprogram er poliovirus efter et halvt århundrede næsten udryddet globalt og forekommer i 2020 kun i Afganistan, Pakistan og Nigeria Poliovirus. O poliovírus pertence ao género enterovírus, da família Picornaviridae. É o agente que causa a poliomielite nos humanos. É dos vírus mais simples, com apenas um RNA de cadeia simples em sentido positivo, sem envelope, com uma cápside de proteína icosaédrica de 30 nm. É um pequeno vírus de ácido ribonucleico com cerca de. Poliovirus en la humanidad. Los poliovirus, aparentemente, han sido patógenos importantes de los humanos durante mucho tiempo. Existen representaciones en estelas egipcias que datan de hace más de 3500 años sugieren que el poliovirus estuvo presente en el Egipto antiguo. Aunque el virus ha estado muy distribuido en humanos durante miles de años, no hay evidencias de poliomielitis en. Poliovirus Poliovirus Svensk definition. En art av Enterovirus som orsakar poliomyelit hos människor. Det finns tre serotyper (stammar). Överföring sker genom avföring, halssekret eller någon vektor (flugor). Såväl inaktiverade som försvagade, levande virusvacciner har visat sig effektiva för immunisering mot infektionen. Engelsk.

Polio (poliomyelitis tidligere ofte benævnt børnelammelse) forårsages af Poliovirus.Det er en alvorlig, smitsom virussygdom i hjerne og rygmarv, og infektion kan medføre total lammelse i løbet af få timer.Etymologi: Græsk, poliomyelitis betyder betændelse i den grå marv med henvisning til at der er tale om en sygdom i rygmarvens grå substans Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, a typical picornavirus with a small non-lipid-containing virion approximately 27 nm in diameter. The icosahedral particle consists of sixty copies of each of the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, encasing a single strand of messenger sense RNA. Polioviruses occur as serotypes 1, 2 and 3, and immunity. Poliovirus (virus poliomyelitidy, PV) je neobalený RNA virus způsobující infekční onemocnění dětskou obrnu.Řadí se mezi lidské enteroviry C v rámci rodiny picornavirů. Jsou známé 3 serotypy poliovirů: PV1, PV2 a PV3. Hostitelem mohou být primáti nebo člověk. Vlivem očkování došlo téměř k jeho vymýcení La mayoría de las personas infectadas con poliovirus tiene infecciones asintomáticas. Normalmente no tienen síntomas. La única manera de saber si alguien tiene la infección es realizando un análisis de sangre u otra prueba para detectar el virus en las heces o la garganta. ENFERMEDAD ABORTIV

Vanliga risker i arbetsmiljön . Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter och allmänna råd om vanliga risker i arbetsmiljön (2.1 O poliovirus é o axente vírico causante da poliomielite (ou polio). Actualmente non se considera unha especie de virus senón un serotipo da especie Enterovirus C, da familia Picornaviridae. [1]O poliovirus está composto dun xenoma de ARN e unha cápside proteica e sen envoltura.O xenoma é unha molécula de ARN monocatenario de sentido positivo duns 7 500 nucleótidos de longo. [2 Das Poliovirus ist ein RNA-Virus, der zur Familie der Picornaviridae und zur Gruppe der Enteroviren gehört. Das Virus ist Auslöser der Poliomyelitis (Kinderlähmung) The user-friendly (and wallet-friendly) Hootsuite alternative. Spend less time scheduling posts & spend more time growing your business with Later detecting poliovirus BOX 1 Environmental surveillance, or testing of sewage samples for poliovirus, can supplement AFP surveillance in some settings. The purpose of environmental surveillance is to identify poliovirus transmission that might occur in the absence of detected AFP cases, since < 1% of new infections with WPV or VDPV leads to.

Polio - om vaccination — Folkhälsomyndighete

Polio - Wikipedi

poliovirus virion is small, with a diameter of 27 to 30 nm, and contains a single stranded molecule of RNA. A thin 20-sided shell composed of four virion pro-teins (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4) surrounds the RNA (Hogle et al. 1985). Several sites involved in virus neutralization have been identified on the surface of the poliovirus Das Poliovirus (genauer Humanes Poliovirus, gelegentlich noch Poliomyelitis-Virus, PV) ist eine Subspezies von Viren der Spezies Enterovirus C (EV-C) aus der Gattung Enterovirus in der Familie der Picornaviridae. Das Poliovirus löst beim Menschen die Kinderlähmung (Poliomyelitis, kurz Polio) aus Poliovirus infections can lead to a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from subclinical infection to paralysis and death. The majority of poliovirus infections are asymptomatic; up to 70% of infected individuals experience no symptoms and about 25% experience mild symptoms. Paralytic poliomyelitis occurs in less than 1% of all infections

What is Polio

  1. Poliovirus - any of three serotypes of the particular virus that causes polio; it is an enterovirus, meaning it infects the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted in fecal matter. Quarantine - to detain, isolate, or restrict commerce and interaction because of a contagious disease. Polio patients and their.
  2. Poliovirus Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. Learn and reinforce your understanding of Poliovirus. - Osmosis is an efficient, enjoyable, and social way to learn. Sign up for an account today! Don't study it, Osmose it
  3. Poliovirus is a member of the picornavirus family, which includes a number of significant pathogens of humans (e.g., rhinoviruses, Coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A virus) and livestock (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease viruses)
  4. Host-virus interaction Apoptosis modulation. Picornaviruses modulate host apoptosis.. Poliovirus infection activates the apoptotic pathway, involving mitochondrial damage, cytochrome c efflux, and consecutive activation of caspases (caspase-3 caspase and -9) , whereas antiapoptotic activity has been attributed to cardiovirus leader protein. Modulation of apoptosis depends on the host cell.

Ett ovanligt poliovirus har hittats i Tammerfors avloppsvatten, det visar prover som tagits förra veckan och i början av juni Les poliovirus, agents responsables de la poliomyélite, appartiennent au genre Enterovirus. À la suite de nombreuses études dont il a fait l'objet depuis les années 1930 et particulièrement dans les années 1950, le poliovirus humain est devenu un modèle de choix pour l'étude de la biologie moléculaire des virus animaux à ARN [1], [

Poliovirus (PV), like many positive-strand RNA viruses, subverts the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway to promote its own replication. Here, we investigate whether the virus uses the canonical autophagic signaling complex, consisting of the ULK1/2 kinases, ATG13, RB1CC1, and ATG101, to activate autophagy Poliovirus || Poliovirus morphology || PolioVaccine || Poliovirus laboratory Diagnosis 3d animation• Poliovirus (:16)• Poliovirus morphology (2:13)• Poliovi.. When poliovirus encounters the nerve cells, the protruding receptors attach to the virus particle, and infection begins. Once inside the cell, the virus hijacks the cell's assembly process, and makes thousands of copies of itself in hours. The virus kills the cell and then spreads to infect other cells. Many types of human cells have. Hitta perfekta Poliovirus bilder och redaktionellt nyhetsbildmaterial hos Getty Images. Välj mellan premium Poliovirus av högsta kvalitet Define poliovirus. poliovirus synonyms, poliovirus pronunciation, poliovirus translation, English dictionary definition of poliovirus. n. pl. po·li·o·vi·rus·es An enterovirus, separable into three serotypes, that is the causative agent of poliomyelitis

Poliovirus - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been used in routine immunization and in supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) throughout the polio eradication initiative, and the dramatic decrease of poliomyelitis incidence is a result of massive OPV use Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by the poliovirus, which has the ability to infect motor neurons in the spinal cord and cause paralysis. American President..

Over 1.2 million children in Tajikistan received oral polio vaccine in the second round of the supplemental immunization campaign completed on 5 July 2021. The immunization campaign was conducted in response to the identification of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) in the country Despite marked progress in global polio eradication, the threat of polio importation into the United States remains; therefore, all children should be protected against the disease. The standard schedule for poliovirus immunization remains 4 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 through 18 months and 4 through 6 years of age

Klassificering av poliovirus - Infektionssjukdomar och

  1. On 28 August 2015, the WHO Regional Office for Europe was notified of two confirmed cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) in Ukraine. The two cases have a genetic similarity, which indicates that active transmission of cVDPV1 is ongoing. WHO and UNICEF are supporting the Ministry of Health of Ukraine in conducting an urgent, robust response
  2. Poliovirus Treatment of Recurrent Glioblastoma A replication-defective poliovirus was injected directly into recurrent glioblastoma tumors, and dexamethasone and bevacizumab were used to control ed..
  3. Poliovirus förekommer i tre typer benämnda poliovirus 1, 2 respektive 3.Poliovirus smittar peroralt via aerosol eller fekal Några år senare utvecklade Jonas Salk ett vaccin som använde avdödat poliovirus och injicerades, och ytterligare något år Småbarn som infekterats med poliovirus får oftast milda symptom, och blir därefter immuna mot sjukdomen
  4. Poliovirus is a type of enterovirus, meaning it enters through the oropharynx (mouth and nasal cavities) and then replicates in the submucosal tissues of the pharynx and the gastrointestinal tract [1]. It is a small virus (27-30 nm) that lacks a viral envelope but has a capsid that surround its single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which is about 7,500 nucleotides long [3]
  5. Poliovirus definition is - an enterovirus (species Poliovirus) occurring in three distinct serotypes that cause polio. How to use poliovirus in a sentence

Other articles where Poliovirus is discussed: virus: viruses that cause polio (poliovirus) and other diseases. (Until this time, the poliovirus could be grown only in the brains of chimpanzees or the spinal cords of monkeys.) Culturing cells on glass surfaces opened the way for diseases caused by viruses to be identified by their effects on cell Poliovirus is a member of the enterovirus subgroup of the Picorniviridae family. There are 3 serotypes of poliovirus: type 1, type 2 and type 3. Due to the efforts of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), wild-type 2 poliovirus has been eliminated from globa Das Poliovirus wird fäkal-oral übertragen. Durch eine Aufnahme über den Mund (Schmierinfektion, z.B. durch verunreinigtes Trinkwasser oder Lebensmittel) gelangt das Virus in den Darm und vermehrt sich in der Darmwand und den Lymphknoten. Gelangt das Virus auch in das Blut, so kann auch das zentrale Nervensystem (ZNS) betroffen sein In Ukraine, one case of polio, caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), has been confirmed. A cVDPV2 was isolated from a 17-month old girl with acute flaccid paralysis, from Rivne province (in the north-west of the country), and from six healthy contacts (siblings of the girl) 2 million. volunteer vaccinators support polio campaigns every year. * Estimates between 1996-2020. In 1996, the great African leader Nelson Mandela launched the Kick Polio Out of Africa campaign with Rotary International's support, setting out a vision for a polio-free Africa. At the time, wild polio paralysed 75,000 children each year

A cornerstone of the global initiative to eradicate polio is the widespread use of live and inactivated poliovirus vaccines in extensive public health campaigns designed to prevent the development. Poliovirus infection - including symptoms, treatment and prevention On this page. Poliomyelitis or polio is an infection caused by the polio virus. It is a serious disease affecting a person's brain and spinal cord. Infection with the poliovirus can lead to a life-threatening muscular paralysis of the body Africa eradicates wild poliovirus. Brazzaville - The independent Africa Regional Certification Commission (ARCC) for Polio Eradication officially declared on Tuesday that the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region is free of wild poliovirus. This marks the eradication of the second virus from the face of the continent since smallpox. Poliovirus isolates were sent to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA) for sequencing of the VP1 genomic region. For our analysis, we defined VP1 divergence rate as the maximum value (percentage) of VP1 divergence from the original Sabin strain, divided by the total duration (years) of virus replication poliovirus [po´le-o-vi″rus] a species of enterovirus that is the etiologic agent of poliomyelitis. It is separable into three serotypes, designated types 1, 2, and 3, with type 1 being responsible for about 85 per cent of all cases of paralytic poliomyelitis and for most epidemics. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and.

Polio: Symptoms, treatments, and vaccines

Inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-containing vaccine is recommended for infants and children in a 4-dose schedule at 2, 4 and 6 months and 4 years of age.Infants can have their 1st dose of IPV-containing vaccine as early as 6 weeks of age.If the 1st dose of IPV-containing vaccine is given at the age of 6 weeks, infants should still receive their next scheduled doses at 4 and 6 months of age Poliovirus : Virus polio adalah virus yang termasuk dalam genus Enterovirus C dan famili Picornaviridae. Virus polio merupakan penyebab penyakit poliomielitis. Virus ini memiliki diameter ~30 nm, tahan pada keadaan asam (pH 3 atau lebih rendah), dan berbentuk ekosahedral « L'éradication du poliovirus sauvage marque un jalon important pour l'Afrique. Les générations futures d'enfants africains pourront désormais vivre sans craindre une contamination par le poliovirus sauvage », s'est réjouie à cette occasion la Directrice régionale de l'OMS pour l'Afrique, Dre Matshidiso Moeti. Cette déclaration marque l'éradication d'un deuxième.

Story of the drop: what's inside a polio vaccine that prevents up to 3 million deaths every year. Oral and inactivated types of vaccines use a live strain of the poliovirus to build antibodies and. male doctor drawing the measles, mumps, rubella (mmr) vaccine - poliovirus stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. viral encephalitis, illustration - poliovirus stock illustrations. Poliovirus Causes The Poliomyelitis, An Infectious And Contagious Disorder Which Destroys Motor Neurons. The Infected Cells Die, And If Enough..

Until poliovirus transmission is interrupted in these countries, all countries remain at risk of importation of polio, especially vulnerable countries with weak public health and immunization services and travel or trade links to endemic countries. Read More. 2. Endemic Countries. 26. Outbreak Countries. 5 Il Poliovirus. Il Poliovirus è un agente virale appartenente al genere degli enterovirus umani (N.B: gli stessi virus che causano il virus intestinale) e alla famiglia dei picornavirus. Dotato di capside, il poliovirus possiede un genoma a RNA a singola elica, composto da 7.500 nucleotidi circa

Pakistan has made important progress towards stopping poliovirus transmission in the country. Case numbers are the lowest they have ever been, while immunity gaps among children continue to decline. An array of approaches and tools are implemented to help Pakistan reach the finish line of zero polio cases Nigeria and the African region were certified Wild Poliovirus (WPV)-free on August 25, 2020 after more than two decades of intensive and aggressive government-led mass vaccination campaigns, with. La poliomyélite est une maladie très contagieuse provoquée par un virus (le poliovirus) qui envahit le système nerveux et qui peut entraîner en quelques heures des paralysies irréversibles. Depuis les années 60 cette maladie peut être prévenue grâce à des vaccins efficaces. Un programme mondial visant à éradiquer la maladie par la vaccination a été lancé sous le contrôle de l.

Childhood paralysis spike caused by polio vaccine

Luo added with only one case of wild poliovirus reported so far in 2021, Afghanistan has an extraordinary opportunity to eradicate the crippling disease. Restarting polio vaccination now is crucial for preventing any significant resurgence of the virus within the country and mitigating the risk of cross-border and international transmission Introducción. El virus polio (VP) sólo infecta al ser humano y, de éste, sólo su sistema nervioso central y, más específicamente, la sustancia gris en la médula y tronco del encéfalo, por representar éstos un ámbito perfecto para su reproducción

Polio RIV

Polio Eradication in India | Public Health Grand Rounds | CDC

Hur används ordet poliovirus - Synonymer

VAXELIS (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, and invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Poliovirus (PV: family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus) is the etiologic agent of poliomyelitis, a human disease of the central nervous system.Effective vaccines against PV have been developed against the three known poliovirus serotypes: PV1, PV2, and PV3 ().Picornavirus infection is initiated by attachment to specific cell surface molecules poliovirus infections after the switch to bOPV (3 - 5). To stop the spread of existing cVDPV2s before the switch and to reduce risks for post-switch outbreaks (4), population immu ­ nity to type 2 poliovirus at the time of the switch was boosted through implementation of 116 supplemental immunization activities (SIAs

Polio - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Background Poliovirus vaccination induces an adaptive humoral immune response; in vitro experiments show polio-immune sera contain antibodies against the poliovirus RNA transcriptase that cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. While structural similarities between poliovirus and SARS-CoV-2 could have major implications for the COVID-19 response worldwide, polio-induced immune responses against SARS-CoV. Mediates NK cell adhesion and triggers NK cell effector functions. Binds two different NK cell receptors: CD96 and CD226. These interactions accumulates at the cell-cell contact site, leading to the formation of a mature immunological synapse between NK cell and target cell. This may trigger adhesion and secretion of lytic granules and IFN-gamma and activate cytotoxicity of activated NK cells Poliovirus is a member of the enterovirus subgroup, family Picornaviridae. Poliovirus is primarily spread from the stools of the infected person and enters the body orally through contaminated water or food (feco-oral transmission), infecting the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the ileum and mesentrium Poliovirus Poliomyelitis Author: Sushil Tamrakar. General overview of Poliovirus . Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines. Polio is caused by a highly infectious virus of the family of Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus

What Is Polio?Viruses | Free Full-Text | Multiple Poliovirus ProteinsPolio – Medical Heritage ManitobaAfrican Region certified as wild poliovirus-free | CDC

Polio (Poliomyelitis): What Is It, Symptoms, Causes & Vaccin

Poliovirus lacks the ability to correct its mutations, so its genome evolves at one to two nucleotide substitutions per week. It is always changing. Left: Eckard Wimmer (left) and colleagues Jeronimo Cello and Aniko Paul in the Stony Brook lab where they synthesized polio, 2002. Cello. As of 18 August, 36 wild poliovirus cases have been reported globally for 2015. These cases come from from Afghanistan and Pakistan. One case of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 was also detected in Nigeria. Polio in the Philippines I The last case of wild poliovirus in the Philippines was reported in 1993. The country is polio-free since 2000 Välj mellan Poliovirus bildbanksfoton, bilder och royaltyfria bilder från iStock. Hitta högkvalitativa bildbanksfoton som du inte hittar någon annanstans ''The poliovirus affected motor cells like a shotgun blast fired into a flock of birds; there was no pattern or predictability to the extent and permanence of the paralysis.'' The unpredictability of the extent and permanence of the paralysis added another level of suspense for the patient and families, especially whe

Poliovirus: Characteristics, Epidemiology, Serotypes, Mode

Enormous progress has been made in global efforts to eradicate poliovirus, using live-attenuated Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as the incidence of disease due to wild poliovirus. Poliovirus is the best studied picornavirus that causes disease of the central nervous system. There are three serotypes of poliovirus which are classified in the species Enterovirus C within the genus Enterovirus. This chapter explores the biology of poliovirus, pathogenesis, and control In addition, PVR serves as the entry receptor for poliovirus and thereby mediates human susceptibility to poliovirus infection (summary by Fuchs et al., 2004). Cloning and Expression. Primates are susceptible to poliomyelitis infection, but rodents are not; furthermore, human cells but not rodent cells are killed by poliovirus in vitro

Polio Disease and Poliovirus CD

On Tuesday, Africa has been declared free of the last remaining strain of wild poliovirus. More than 95% of Africa's population has now been immunised. This was one of the conditions that the. Receptor-mediated uncoating and thermal inactivation of poliovirus and rhinovirus are inhibited by agents that bind to each virus by inserting into a pocket in the beta barrel of the viral capsid protein, VP1. This pocket, which is normally empty in human rhinovirus-14 (HRV14), is occupied by an unknown natural ligand in poliovirus

PDB-101: Goodsell Gallery: SARS-CoV-2 FusionVacuna de la Poliomielitis

Not detecting any wild poliovirus in Africa is in stark contrast to the situation in 1996, when 75,000 children there were paralyzed by the disease. That year, at a meeting of the Organization of African Unity in Cameroon, African heads of state committed to eradicating the disease from the continent The live poliovirus attacks the human body by replicating itself first in the intestines; it then journeys all the way to the brain and spinal cord through blood Poliovirus replication is limited to the brain and spinal cord, oropharyngeal and intestinal mucosa, tonsils, Peyer's patches, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes . The poliovirus receptor is not sufficient to determine poliovirus tropism, because this protein is produced in a broad range of animal tissues (16 - 18) Poliovirus definition, any of three picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus, having a spherical capsid, infectious to humans and the cause of poliomyelitis. See more And wondered why God had taken him and spared me, he said. Epley, who is vaccinated against COVID-19, thinks society has a better handle on coronavirus than polio. At its peak, poliovirus. Isolation of Poliovirus — John Enders and the Nobel Prize. List of authors. Fred S. Rosen, M.D. October 7, 2004. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1481-1483. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp048202. When John Enders was.